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The Massimo Rinaldi Archive























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The Massimo Rinaldi Archive of photos, documents, and artifacts has been made possible through the generous support of The Engineer Massimo Rinaldi's family. We are profoundly grateful for their willingness to share these invaluable historical artifacts with Project Origins. This collection offers an unprecedented glimpse into the extraordinary life and brilliant work of The Engineer Massimo Rinaldi, one of the most influential inventors and brilliant engineers of the 20th century, who pioneered the first commercial transistorized desktop computer, the IME 84. Massimo's updated model, the IME 86S, was used to help design and improve the Apollo 11 retro reflector, a well-known major lunar experiment (see Archive for documentation) used to accurately determine the distance from the Earth to the moon, down to less than 2 centimeters.

Massimo Rinaldi's even earlier innovation, made and sold out of his own home garage, the previously unknown Transimatic Italiana ED 114 electronic data statistical calculator, created and sold between 1962 and 1963, now holds the distinction of being the first fully transistorized desktop calculator advertised and sold as an official business product. Numerous units were sold to prestigious government-related entities, including the Italian Air Force and the Italian National Science Council (see archive), making it non-commercial.

 

The price of the ED 114 was 3,135,000 Lira (33,827 USD in 2024), according to a late 1962 59-page Transimatic Italiana product booklet. The booklet was found by Massimo's son rummaging through one of his dad's boxes in the basement, after communicating with Dr. Kavanau. The ED 114 is featured on the cover of this booklet and is mentioned as being highly received at a recent conference in Paris (relative to late 1962) where an example was publicly presented. The 59-page Transimatic Italiana product booklet also explains that the ED 114 is:
 

"...already in operation at the National Institute of Psychology C.N.R., the student school of the Guardia di Finanza, and requested by other university institutes, the Air Force, and ENPI, receiving praise from specialists in the field."

The ED 114 also connects to an optional TP 118 tape punch and two PR 128 tape readers, making the ED 114 computer system fully automatic for processing stored bulk data. It performs addition, subtraction, multiplication and statistical functions, but not division, except through repeated subtraction.

This archive celebrates the legacy of a once-in-a-century innovator and genius: The Engineer Massimo Rinaldi, whose pioneering work profoundly transformed the future of both personal and scientific computing.























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Original advertisement booklet cover for Massimo Rinaldi's IME 84 Masterpiece. This document is arguably the most beautiful, in terms of aesthetics, of all the known surviving IME 84 promotional materials. April 1964.

Top Translation:

THE FIRST FULLY TRANSISTORIZED DESKTOP ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR

Bottom Translation:

THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE FUTURE IN YOUR OFFICE























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A freshly minted Engineer Massimo Rinaldi (right), 24,  and father Giulio Rinaldi (left), on Massimo's graduation day on November 20, 1953, with his advanced degree in engineering from La Sapienza University of Rome.

Massimo's mother was Alessandra Latini, from a famous ancient family of Collalto Sabino (see Archive). Massimo was offered a position to stay at the university, in the aerospace department with Professor Broglio, but Massimo had other ambitions.

Before attending La Sapienza University, Massimo helped manage the family construction company,  inherited from his grandfather with the same first and last name, along with his father, Giulio.


After completing his engineering studies, Massimo worked as the Assistant to the Chair of Electrical Measurements at the same university. Massimo married in 1955 to Mrs. Eliana d'Agata and began his career at Hasler AG and subsequently at Selenia Industrie Elettronica Associate S.p.A., dealing with telecommunications and pulse technology. Massimo was partly in a managerial role. Massimo and Eliana had four children together: Paolo, Claudia, Stefano, and Fabio. 

In 1958, Massimo Rinaldi left Selenia and founded Transimatic Italiana S.p.A. in Rome, initiating the production of fully-transistorized statistical calculators from his home garage. By early 1963 (before March), the company had moved from Massimo's home garage to Via di Villa Massimo, n.21, Roma, and subsequently to a factory in Pomezia, an industrial area near Rome, on the border of the Pontine marshes. The ED 114 calculator featured connectors in the back for both tape readers and punch units (also shown below). Researchers often used it to analyze psychophysical data representing time delay intervals in human response time to various sensory stimuli. A 59-page Transimatic Italiana products pamphlet from late 1962, featuring all their products, has survived. 

At the time Transimatic Italiana was supported by loans from Cassa del Mezzogiorno. However, to secure its position in a sector dominated by major companies like Olivetti and multinational giants like IBM, it soon became essential for Transimatic Italiana to find an industrial partner with deep pockets and connections, for a nominal production capacity of 150 units a day.

It took Massimo nearly a year to secure financing and establish infrastructure through a partnership. In that period Italy was recovering from World War II, with significant poverty and financial instruments largely reserved for a small elite group of individuals and companies, such as Olivetti.
 
Massimo consulted with Olivetti several times for a possible partnership, but Olivetti considered the elma 3000 (Massimo's prototype for the IME 84; see below) useless to them because "It doesn't print" and because "if necessary we have internal human and financial resources to develop this kind of product independently."
 
Then, in late 1963, after a nearly year-long search, by showing various corporate entities his four elma 3000 computers and business plan (Massimo's handwritten first draft of the IME business plan survives), Massimo Rinaldi finally sold a controlling share of Transimatic Italiana to the Edison group for 440,000,000 Lira (see original document below) (4,748,984 USD in 2024), while continuing to serve as the Director of Research and Development, where he directed a team of technicians working under him.

The company was renamed Industria Macchine Elettroniche S.p.A. (IME) on March 9, 1964 (see document archive below concerning date of the IME corporate minutes). Hence, any "IME" advertisements or announcements will be no earlier than this date. 

Massimo also had many hobbies. Underwater photography was a passion Massimo shared with his family since the early 1970's. From the very first Calypso, to all the Nikonos models, Nikonos II, III, IV and V. Massimo also had the original underwater reflex housing from both Rolliflex and Hasselblad. In the very early 1980s, when the very first "VHS-C Videos" were released, a special underwater housing was also built.

Massimo dived in many seas of the world: Mediterranean (Italy, France, Spain, Greece, Tunisia, Yugoslavia, Turkey, etc.), Caribbean, Bahamas, Hawaii, Seychelles, Mauritius, etc.

Massimo Rinaldi was born on February 21, 1929, in Rome, and passed away on August 16, 2009, at 80 years old.























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In Massimo's own words

Answering the question on how his career began...

Well, now we are getting lost in the mists of time. I think I belong to an early category of engineer who couldn't study my area of electronics because there was no such subject yet (note: there were no electronic engineering degrees in those days). I graduated in 1953, precisely the year the first transistor was presented by my old professor in a display presentation case. Those were truly different days, there was everything to do, everything to invent, everything to build.

 

I come from a good Roman bourgeois family, my father was an engineer who in turn had inherited a small business. But my destiny was to be different.

 

I couldn't be satisfied with the typical choices of those years: either getting a secure job with zero worries or starting to work for a large company that would keep me on salary and provide for my living.

 

Instead, I felt the need to formulate, to invent, and to realize what my creativity suggested. There were no solid state electronics studies in universities yet, so I had to improvise, study on my own, and in my own unique way try to make my visions come true.

 

So, I graduated and immediately began to deal with telecommunications and pulse technology.

 

After a few years, I founded Transmatic Italiana, which dealt with devices for psychometric calculations, and in 1962, I patented the first fully transistorized desktop electronic calculator in the world. It was produced by IME S.p.A., where I was the General Manager of the Research Division until 1969.

 

Then, at the end of 1969, I founded the research company MAEL and developed the MAEL 4000 line of calculators. In 1970, I founded INSEL Industria Sistemi Elettronici S.p.A., which produces these calculators."























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Massimo Rinaldi, age 35, standing next to his IME 84 masterpiece. 
April 11, 1964; Published in Secolo d'Italla closeup (see below for full article).























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Massimo Rinaldi, age 35, standing next to his IME 84 masterpiece. April 11, 1964; Published in Secolo d'Italla 
Closeup with higher contrast. See further into the archive for the full article.























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Closeup of 1964 article below (see further below)
TRANSLATION:

The electronic desktop calculator produced by IME, with its sober and elegant design, occupies little more space than a typewriter. On the left is engineer Massimo Rinaldi, who designed and built it























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The Engineer Massimo Rinaldi, 45 years old;
August 1974
Corporate photograph. (partial restoration)























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Massimo Rinaldi, 53 years old, with one of his MAEL 4000 series computers, a precursor to the modern PC. It's CPU consisted entirely of 74XX family integrated circuits mounted on small relatively cards. The complete schematic diagram of the MAEL 4000 survives. 

April 13, 1982. MA stands for Massimo, and EL stands for Eliana, his wife.























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Massimo Rinaldi (right), 63 years of age, being interviewed for M&P (Micro & Personal) Computer magazine by the editor (see below). August 7, 1992.























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Massimo Rinaldi's ED 114 Electronic Data Statistical Calculator by Transimatic Italiana represents the last of a line of fully transistorized statistical desktop calculators. This final production model, the ED 114, developed and produced in Massimo Rinaldi's home garage, is featured on the cover of a 59-page Transimatic Italiana products booklet from late 1962. The ED 114 was priced at L. 3,135,000, equivalent to 33,837 USD in 2024 buying power. Designed for integration with the Transimatic Italiana TP 118 tape punch and two PR 128 tape readers (shown below), the ED 114 was a trailblazer in automation for transistorized desktop data processing.

The booklet highlights the ED 114's positive reception at a recent Paris conference, noting that it is "already in operation at the National Institute of Psychology C.N.R., the student school of the Guardia di Finanza, and requested by other university institutes, the Air Force, and ENPI, praised by specialists in the field."

The ED 114 performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, and various statistical functions, excluding division, except through repeated subtractions. It features five separate memories and accepts data via keyboard input for X and Y values and through an external connectors port (located at the back), facilitating the use of the tape punch and readers for data from psychophysical sensors recorded on punch tape. Patented in 1962 (see Massimo Rinaldi's interview in this archive), the ED 114's design and functionality are well documented in the product booklet.

The booklet further states (translated to English):

"...Its value, in addition to its proven market, lies in the fact that the various functions that compose it can be programmed differently to allow the creation of new series of equipment which, although low in cost, make available customizable mathematical operators for solving a variety of problems. A good presentation aesthetics and extreme simplicity of use and maintenance (all the printed circuit boards are removable) they had received unanimous approval for this machine."

This groundbreaking calculator holds the distinction of being the first fully transistorized desktop calculator marketed and sold to government-related entities (not commercial), preceding later commercial availability by two years with the IME 84. The transition to a large-scale commercial operation was delayed by nearly a year due to the time required to secure the necessary financing for Massimo's venture.

On March 8, 1963, Massimo filed (the "priority date") for his key patent in Italy (Patent Application #4543/63, see Archive). This was quickly followed with patents for the same around the world.

Massimo's first claim, of four claims, in this March 8, 1963 patent leverages a novel strobe effect, or persistence of vision, to create the illusion that all numeric digits are lit simultaneously, even though they are actually illuminated sequentially. This method simplifies the design drastically and reduces the complexity and cost of the hardware needed to display multiple digits at once.

This was followed by another key patent on March 18, 1963 (Patent Application #5336/63 see Archive).























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ED 114 Electronic Data Statistical Calculator by Transimatic Italiana - Production Model - Fully Transistorized - Keyboard Closeup of the statistical function buttons on this statistical computer.























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In Massimo's own words

 

Concerning the ED 114

(translated from Italian):

 

Using original principles it was in fact possible to create an electronic calculator with small dimensions (desktop) and capable of performing a fixed program with a whole series of operations on two set data X and Y and precisely the sum of the X, the sum of the Y, the sum of the squares of X, the sum of the squares of Y, the sum of the products X • Y and this with a single control pulse.

 

Data stored in 5 separate memories are highlighted in luminous digits when the corresponding key is pressed.

 

Using such data it is possible to have average standard deviations and correlation indices relating to two classes of data in a time that represents only about one hundredth of the time needed today to obtain the same data using mechanical calculators.

ORIGINAL ITALIAN:

Questo il testo originale della descrizione:

Mediante principi originali è stato possibile difatti realizzare un calcolatore elettronico dalle dimensioni ridotte (da tavolo) e capace di eseguire a programma fisso tutta una serie di operazioni su due dati impostati X e Y e precisamente la somma delle X, la somma delle Y, la somma dei quadrati della X, la somma dei quadrati della Y, la somma dei prodotti X • Y e ciò con un solo impulso di comando.

Dati incamerati in 5 memorie separate sono resi evidenti in cifre luminose al premere del tasto corrispondente.

Mediante tali dati è possibile avere medie scarti quadratici medi ed indici di correlazione relativi a due classi di dati in un tempo che rappresenta solo un centesimo circa del tempo necessario oggi per avere i medesimi dati mediante calcolatrici meccaniche.























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The Transimatic Italiana TP 118 were made in Massimo's home garage. This was an optional interface tape punch for the ED 114 fully transistorized desktop computer. This photo from late 1963, in the 59-page sales product booklet.























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This is a late 1963 Transimatic Italiana PR 126 tape reader, which was an optional interface for the ED 114 computer. Also made in Massimo's home garage. 























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The 1963 Transimatic Italiana elma 3000 earlier prototype. 4x4 statistical/memory function keyboard being added (far left), or eliminated, as in the later IME 84. Instead division logic would be added to produce the four elma 3000 computers, late in 1962. Note here the 10-key entry is on the far right. 























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The 1963 Transimatic Italiana earlier elma 3000 prototype - Keyboard Closeup























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The elma 3000 Electronic Data Calculator by Transimatic Italiana, late 1962, was a fully transistorized marvel. "MA" stands for Massimo, and "EL" stands for his wife, Eliana (Eliana d'Agata). This is one of the four prototype demonstration units used to secure financing for transitioning to a large-scale commercial operation, ultimately leading to a name change to IME. Notably, the elma 3000 was Massimo's first calculator capable of performing division.
 
In a recent interview with Project Origins, Stefano Rinaldi, Massimo's son, shed light on the origins of the name:
 
"I don't know where the number '3000' came about, but knowing the way my father created the names of his products, I think it could be the logical continuation of the name ELMA (my parents) and the number of their children '3' (I am the third and I was born in 1961) to which he added “000” to make it '3000' and therefore 4 digits as if to highlight the generational leap with his previous products all with 3 digits. It's just a hypothesis, but I think it's very plausible."
 
The initial phase of financing for Transimatic Italiana, which funded the Elma 3000—prototype of the now-famous IME 84 computer—was supported by loans from the Cassa del Mezzogiorno. However, to secure the company's position in a sector dominated by major Italian companies like Olivetti and multinational giants like IBM, it became essential for Transimatic Italiana to find an industrial partner. During this period, Italy was recovering from World War II, and financial resources were largely reserved for a small elite group of individuals and companies, such as Olivetti.

It took nearly a year to establish a partnership. Massimo consulted with Olivetti several times, but Olivetti deemed the Elma 3000 useless because "It doesn't print" and also saying, "if necessary we have internal human and financial resources to develop this kind of product independently." Then, in late 1963, after a nearly year-long search and demonstrating the four Elma 3000 prototypes to potential corporate partners, Massimo Rinaldi finally sold a controlling share of Transimatic Italiana to the Edison group for 440,000,000 Lira (equivalent to 4,768,684 USD in 2024 buying power). Massimo continued as the director of the company's Research and Development Division.

On March 9, 1964, the company was renamed Industria Macchine Elettroniche S.p.A. (IME), (see document below for the corporate minutes) and the elma 3000 project was rebranded as the IME 84, after several iterations. During an interview with Dr. Kavanau (Project Origins's Director), Stefano Rinaldi, Massimo's son, noted: 

"A small note on the number '84' as handed down to me verbally by my father: initially the new members imposed the name IME in place of ELMA 'necessary to launch the new trademark' and then in place of the number '3000' the number '64' referring to the year it was released on the market but my father did not agree with this choice, claiming that it would become “old” the following year (!); in the end they added 20 years… and 64 became 84."

On the morning of April 10, 1964, during a press conference held in the halls of Palazzo Marignoli, the IME 84 was presented to journalists. With representatives of the Edison group, located in Pomezia, on the border of the Pontine marshes, with its headquarters in Milan. 

The President of IME, Engineer Antonio Curami, unveiled the IME 84, and emphasized that it will be marketed mainly abroad, particularly in the United States and Canada, where it had already received  positive feedback from industry professionals. He said the new machine has been greeted with great interest by Italian businesspeople, who consider it a significant step forward for the industry, and noted also the national economic context, where it would greatly help the commercial and administrative sectors. Mr. Curami then introduced Massimo Rinaldi, stating that he entirely conceived and developed the principles on which it is based. Massimo then illustrated the features of the IME 84. Massimo also stated that IME's activities looked beyond the current economic difficulties in Italy, and then took questions from various reporters at the press conference.

Then, on April 12 to 25, 1964, the IME 84 was exhibited and demonstrated at the Milan Trade Fair (Fiera di Milano; and see below).























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The elma 3000 Electronic Data Calculator by Transimatic Italiana - Keyboard closeup; The division keys are clearly visible. Late 1962.























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The Transimatic Italiana elma 3000 by Massimo Rinaldi; Built in Massimo's home garage. Color photograph showing colors of buttons and case; enlargement from interview article (see later in Archive). This elma 3000 has survived and only a few years ago was tested and still working, after some restoration by Rinaldi family engineers.























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The four (4) elma 3000 working demonstration prototype units, used for securing a corporate partner for starting IME, which took nearly a year to accomplish. Photograph: Late 1962.























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"A small note on the number '84' as handed down to me verbally by my father: initially the new members imposed the name IME in place of ELMA "necessary to launch the new trademark" and then in place of the number "3000" the number '64' referring to the year it was released on the market but my father did not agree with this choice, claiming that it would become “old” the following year (!); in the end they added 20 years… and 64 became 84."

From Project Origins interview of Stefano Rinaldi in 2024. (Massimo Rinaldi's son)























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April 22, 1964
 

TRANSLATED:

Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture
 

Rome
 

Certificate No. 76000
 

In accordance with the company register maintained by this office, it is certified that:

In the said register, at No. 272728, as per the notification of October 4, 1963, and subsequent entries, the company Industrie Macchine Elettroniche - I.M.E. - S.p.A. (formerly known as Transmatic Italiana S.p.A., changed to its current name by assembly minutes dated March 9, 1964, with headquarters in Pomezia (Rome), Via del Mare, with a fully paid capital of L. 440,000,000, has been registered.
 

The company’s purpose is the establishment in Pomezia (Rome) of an industrial plant for the study, design, production, and construction of electronic, electromechanical, and electrical systems and apparatuses, as well as the trade of such products.
 

Rome, April 22, 1964
 

The Secretary-General

NOTE: 440,000,000 Lira in 1964 is approximately 4,748,984 USD buying power in 2024.























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IME 84 late pre-production prototype.
Source: Mr. L. Beaugrand























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April 11, 1964; Secolo d'Italla
 

PRESENTED TO THE PRESS THE "DESKTOP" ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR
 

A jewel of precision studied and produced in Italy
 

A multiplication of eight digits by eight digits executed in one-fifth of a second!
 

During a press conference held yesterday morning in the halls of Palazzo Marignoli, the new desk calculator IME 84, entirely designed and produced by the Italian industry of the same name, was presented to journalists. The company, part of the Edison group, is located in Pomezia, with its headquarters in Milan.
 

The president of IME, Engineer Antonio Curami, while presenting the new product of Italian technology, introduced the designer of the machine, a young engineer from Rome, Massimo Rinaldi, who entirely conceived and developed the principles on which it is based. He illustrated the features of the machine and stated that IME's activities looked beyond the current economic difficulties, and then answered questions from various parties.

This is the first office desk calculator entirely electronic and transistor-based produced in the world, making it a real specialty of the Italian electronics industry. Its dimensions are very small: 17.5 cm in height, 44.5 cm in width, and 62 cm in depth, with a weight of just 13.5 kg, absorbing only 40 W, equivalent to the power consumption of a modern table lamp.

Thanks to the use of printed circuits and transistors, it operates in complete silence, offering practically instantaneous data processing. The machine can perform all fundamental arithmetic operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, automatically performing multiplications and divisions even on large numbers, and immediately providing the results to the displayed numbers.
 

The salient feature of the machine is its auxiliary memory, which allows the operator to recall a number at any time, accumulate intermediate results, perform interim sums, and update the final tally. This makes it particularly useful for those who must deal with complex operations frequently.
 

During the press conference, Engineer Curami emphasized that the IME 84 will be marketed mainly abroad, particularly in the United States and Canada, where it has already received positive feedback from industry professionals. The new machine has been greeted with great interest by Italian businesspeople, who consider it a significant step forward for the industry.























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April 10, 1964
 

THE FIRST ELECTRONIC DESKTOP CALCULATOR IS CALLED "IME 84" AND IT'S ENTIRELY ITALIAN
 

Rome, April 10
 

The first office desk calculator, entirely electronic and transistor-based, until now produced by only one Italian industry, was presented this morning by the president of IME (Industrie Macchine Elettroniche, a company of Edison), Gualtiero Curami. The IME 84, this is the name of the device, was presented to journalists and will be shown to the public at the Milan Fair.
 

Mr. Curami highlighted the main features of the machine, while illustrating the probable assumptions of production development and use in the national economic context, in particular in the commercial and administrative sectors.
 

The calculator, completely transistor-based, was born from the experiences and studies of Edison’s technicians and a team of experts in electronics and industrial automation led by engineer Massimo Rinaldi. It measures 17.5 cm high, 45.5 cm wide, and 62 cm deep, and weighs 13.5 kg, absorbing only 40 watts, equivalent to a table lamp of modern design. Through a complex system of memories and auxiliary units, it can perform all the operations of a standard desk calculator, multiplying, dividing, summing, and performing all the fundamental arithmetic operations instantly.

Respect for traditional machines, the IME 84 offers the advantage of electronic calculation and extreme silence. The time necessary for the machine to perform a multiplication or division corresponds to the time required by a car moving at 150 km/h to stop in front of an obstacle: approximately 1/5 of a second. The time saving compared to traditional mechanical calculators is between 10 and 50 times.

The IME 84, equipped with a group of auxiliary memories, represents its distinguishing feature. These auxiliary memories allow it to recall numbers, accumulate results of various operations in memory, perform interim sums, and update the final count.

The proper functioning of the machine is achieved with all facilities, supported by the advanced thought of technician and entrepreneur. The president underlined the significance of entering a sector in which the Italian industrial group is at the forefront. The production of calculators in Italy is therefore notably higher than that of traditional calculators in other countries. In fact, restoring a million units, while only partially started, reaches the 700 thousand unit target, resulting in superior quality not only to that of other European nations but also to that of the United States.
 

With this initiative, the Edison group, which already created numerous industries in southern Italy, including mainly chemical and petrochemical ones in Priolo, Sicily, further contributes to the economic progress of the south. When the new IME factory, equipped with the most modern tools and organized according to the most advanced criteria in the United States, starts producing calculators, the benefit of these devices will be widespread, especially in the commercial and administrative sectors.
 

Mr. Curami highlighted the specific characteristics of the machine, which allows performing complex arithmetic operations, managing a memory that can store significant amounts of data, and an instantaneous response time that significantly reduces the time taken to perform tasks. The IME 84 is thus not only an innovative product but also a practical solution that meets the needs of modern businesses and administrative offices.

 

CAPTION UNDER THE IMAGE

The IME 84, totally transistorized, is produced by the new Società Industrie Macchine Elettroniche (IME).























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April 1964 article.

TRANSLATION:

 

ELECTRONIC CALCULATIONS ON A DESKTOP
 

The IME 84 is the first office desk calculator entirely electronic and transistor-based, produced in the world by an Italian industry known as Edison. Mainly intended for export, it costs just over a million lire.
 

Thirty years old, Roman, married with three children: Engineer Massimo Rinaldi, the creator and developer of the principles on which the new desk calculator IME 84 is based, the first office desk calculator entirely electronic and transistor-based in the world. "It is difficult," says Ing. Rinaldi, "to say when the idea of realizing such a machine was born: it is the result of many years of experience that materialized hand in hand, one idea after another, until finally being able to put a truly new calculator on the market."
 

Graduated in Rome ten years ago, Rinaldi became head of a team of technicians working in the technical offices of the Industry Macchine Elettroniche IME S.p.A., a new large complex located in Pomezia, on the borders of the Pontine Marshes. The Edison Group, to which the IME Company is connected, is a new initiative of the Edison Group which has already created numerous industries in Italy, including mainly chemical and petrochemical ones in Priolo in Sicily, giving further contribution to economic progress in the South: when in a few months the IME will have reached its planned production capacity, around 150 devices will leave the plant each day. The new plant will bring Italian industry to the forefront with a production of no less than 30 models, entirely superior not only to those in our country but also to some of the best ones in the United States. The new desk calculator IME 84 will spread throughout the world, especially in America and Canada thanks to commercial agreements already reached.
 

The desk calculator entirely electronic and transistor-based will briefly be compared to the IME 84 for its main features: its dimensions are very small, smaller than a typewriter (175 mm in height, 455 mm in width, and 620 mm in depth) and, thanks to the use of transistors, it absorbs only 40 Watts, equal to a table lamp of modern design. Other features that differentiate it from other calculating machines are practically instantaneous data processing, extreme quietness guaranteed by the total absence of mechanical parts in motion, the necessary time to perform a multiplication or division, or to find the square root, corresponding to the time taken by a car traveling at 150 km/h to stop in front of an obstacle: about 1/5 of a second. The time saved compared to mechanical calculators is on the order of 10 to 50 times.
 

The IME 84 (the cost of which is around a million and a half lire) is equipped with a group of memories but also with complex auxiliary calculations; such as those for data entry and memory, which is doubly interesting. This should be noted when recalling a number, accumulating the results of numerous operations in memory, performing interim sums, and updating the final count. Thanks to the flexibility of its programming, this calculator is capable of solving numerous complex problems such as multiplication and division in common terms, automatic invoice calculation with suggestions for marginal, medium, and maximum prices.
 

Bold initiative. The IME 84, having the innovative assistance of auxiliary units, is equipped with an electronic printer (the keyboard can be remote without anyone having to abandon their desk to operate it).
 

A machine with a modern and advanced concept in realization, providing a certain answer to the capabilities of modernized and highly automated production, capable of creating new opportunities for Italian exporters and offering new jobs. A courageous initiative offering a positive contribution to overcoming the great crisis that our trade balance and payments crisis will face.























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Original IME 84 promotional booklet cover.























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Original IME 84 Promotional Booklet, inside view























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Original IME 84 promotional booklet, back cover.























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The IME 84 was announced and demonstrated to the public on April 12, 1964 at the Fiera Di Milano in Milan, Italy. The Fiera Di Milano in 1964 was an enormous international trade fair, easily on par with the World's Fair. 























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April 12, 1964 at the Fiera di Milano

TRANSLATION:

IME - Industria Macchine Elettroniche S.p.A., a company of the Edison Group, will present IME 84, the first electronic desktop calculator entirely based on transistors, at the Fiera di Milano. Since the inauguration day, visitors have been numerous and have shown a keen interest in this new calculator, which represents an absolute novelty in the field of office calculators.























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Interview excerpt of Massimo Rinaldi; 1983 Gazzetta dello Sport - Totocalcio. The Japanese company in question is possibly Sony, Busicom or Hayakawa Electronics.

Interviewer: Who assured you that your fully transistorized desktop calculator was the first in the world?

 

Massimo Rinaldi: Before, there had been no news of it. And I had the confirmation two years later, in 1966, when a large Japanese company tried to introduce a calculator in the United States, passing it off as original. In the USA, there is maximum rigor in this field. We appealed, and a judgment recognized our priority.























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Office Magazine, May 1964 Cover Date
(Kind courtesy of  Mr. Nigel Tout)

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May 29, 1964
Time Magazine

(June 6, 1964 cover date on this popular "weekly" magazine) (Kind courtesy of Mr Mr. Nigel Tout)

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TRANSLATION:

Electronic Desktop Calculator IME 84
 

The electronic desktop calculator IME 84 received considerable attention at the trade fair. The special features of this quietly and very quickly calculating machine include its decimal keyboard, the high calculation capacity of 16 digits, and the modular construction with plug-in units and transistors. The calculation range includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and storage. The decimal point is automatically set in multiplication and division. Carrying over values from one work area to another is also possible. The very large digit tubes make it possible to read the values from a distance of up to five meters. For the IME 84, there are separate control keyboards that allow remote control of other workstations available in the workspace. Therefore, a calculation machine can be used by several people without needing to transport the machine.

(IME Industria Macchine Elettroniche S.p.A., Rome)


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June 1964 review of the April 26, 1964 Hanover Trade Fair (starting date), where the IME 84 was exhibited. 
Der Buromaschinen-Mechaniker

Kindly provided to MoTET, by Mr. Nigel Tout























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9-24-65 - IME 84 system electronic calculators exhibited at the second edition of the SMAU

September 24, 1965 - IME 84 system of electronic calculators exhibited at the second edition of the SMAU (Office equipment machine exhibition) at the Milan Fair.























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9-24-65 to 10-2-65 IME 84 system electronic calculators exhibited at the second edition of

Front wall of the SMAU Exhibition on September 24, 1965.























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September 9, 1965 to October 2, 1965 PG 103 electronic programmer for IME 84 RC and IME 84 electronic calculators, IME 84 Output system exhibited at the second edition of SMAU at the Milan Fair.
Front-right wall, recessed. Photo taken September 24, 1965.























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May 1966 The Computer Journal cover  (London)













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May 1966 The Computer Journal (London)























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September 20, 1967 External view of the IME SpA plant























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September 20, 1967 IME factory entrance 























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Inside IME factory, from front of room; 1967























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9-20-67 Pomezia. Printed circuit assembly line for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators.

Septemer 20, 1967 Inside IME factory, from rear of room, Pomezia. Printed circuit assembly line for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators. 



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Inside IME factory; 1967 to 1970























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Original IME 84 Promotional Photograph























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March 8, 1963
 

We, the undersigned Ing. Massimo Rinaldi, of Italian nationality, residing in Rome via Oreste Tommasini, 13, and the company Transmatic Italiana S.R.L., headquartered in Rome, Viale di Villa Massimo, 21, hereby apply for the patent of industrial invention entitled: "Device for the presentation of data stored in electronic circuits" with the legal right to manufacture and sell it exclusively.
 

We attach three descriptions of the invention, each including a drawing, and a certificate of the fees paid.
 

Rome, March 8, 1963
 

Massimo Rinaldi























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March 8, 1963
 

This document formalizes the application and provides detailed information about the attachments and payments made for the patent application

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE

CENTRAL PATENT OFFICE FOR INVENTIONS, MODELS, AND TRADEMARKS
 

Record of Deposit for Industrial Invention Patent
 

Year: 1963 Day: 8 Month: March Hour: 9:30
 

The undersigned Ing. Massimo Rinaldi, of Italian nationality, residing in Rome, via Oreste Tommasini, 13, and Transmatic Italiana S.R.L., headquartered in Rome, Viale di Villa Massimo, 21, hereby apply for the patent for an industrial invention with the title: "Device for the presentation of data stored in electronic circuits."























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March 8, 1963

This document is an official certification from the Italian Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Handicraft, specifically from the Central Patent Office. It certifies the registration of a patent application.


 

Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Handicraft
 

Central Patent Office
 

Patent for Industrial Invention No. 688.969
 

It is certified that, in the register of patents for industrial inventions, an entry was made on March 8, 1963, as follows:
 

A patent application was filed with the Chamber of Commerce I.A.A. of Rome in the name of Rinaldi Massimo & Transmatic Italiana S.R.L., now known as Industria Macchine Elettroniche I.M.E. S.p.A., for the industrial invention No. 4543/63, titled:
 

"Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits!"























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January 25, 1964
 

Ministry of Industry and Commerce
 

Central Patent Office for Inventions, Models, and Trademarks

Document Deposit Report
 

Year: 1964 Day: 25 Month: July
 

The company Industrie Macchine Elettroniche I.M.E. S.p.A., with headquarters in Rome, Viale Liegi, 34, represented by Ing. Barsanò & Zanardo, legally domiciled in Rome, via in Lucina, 17, has deposited the following documents at this office:
 

  1. Application for annotation of the act of name change related to patent application No. 4543/63, Record No. 83/26, No. 5336/63, and its complete relative No. 2610/63, Record No. 97/455, complete relative No. 5471/64, No. 7350/64, Record No. 99/237, No. 5446/64, No. 6402/64, and its complete relative No. 7750/64 in the name of Transmatic Italiana S.p.A.
     

  2. Certificate attesting the name change issued by the Rome Chamber of Commerce on April 22, 1964.
     

  3. Proof of payment of Lire 1,000 (Postal order No. 2149 of July 22, 1964).
     

  4. Letter of engagement.
     

  5. 9 copies in simple form of the annotation application.
     

Depositor: [Signature]
 

Official Registrar: [Signature]























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TRANSLATION

Application for Annotation of Name Change Deed

 

Filed by:
Transimatic Italiana S.p.A.
Rome

 

In favor of:
Industria Macchine Elettroniche I.M.E. S.p.A.
Rome - Viale Liszt, 34

 

Title:
Deed of Name Change related to patent applications:

 

  1. Application no. 4543/63 - Record no. 83/26, filed on 8.3.1963

  2. Application no. 5336/63 - Record no. 83/223, filed on 18.3.1963
    and its completion

  3. Application no. 26110/63 - Record no. 94/455, filed on 21.12.1963

  4. Application no. 450/64 - Record no. 95/292, filed on 11.1.1964

  5. Application no. 4679/64 - Record no. 97/455, filed on 5.3.1964
    and its completion

  6. Application no. 5471/64 - Record no. 98/197, filed on 14.3.1964

  7. Application no. 7305/64 - Record no. 99/172, filed on 7.4.1964

  8. Application no. 5446/64 - Record no. 98/172, filed on 13.3.1964

  9. Application no. 6402/64 - Record no. 98/463, filed on 27.3.1964

  10. Application no. 7750/64 - Record no. 99/237, filed on 10.4.1964
     

List of Documents Submitted:
 

  1. Certificate attesting the name change issued by the Rome Chamber of Commerce on 22.4.1964























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2. Certificate of payment of Lire 1,000.
 

3. Letter of appointment
 

4. 9 copies of the present application on plain paper.
 

Rome, 25 July 1964
 

On behalf of INDUSTRIA MACCHINE ELETTRONICHE I.M.E. S.p.A.

By Engineer Barzano & Zanardo

 

(Signature and Stamp)























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January 22, 1964
 

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE

Central Patent Office Rome

 

Subject: Patent application No. 4543/63, filed on March 8, 1963, in the names of Ing. Massimo Rinaldi and Transmatic Italiana S.R.L., record No. 83/26.
 

A "letter of engagement" signed by Ing. Massimo Rinaldi and Transmatic Italiana S.R.L. is attached, and we kindly ask you to take note that our office has assumed the representation of the patent application in question.
 

Therefore, all communications related to the mentioned application, as well as the certificate of the related patent, should be sent directly to our office.
 

ING. BARZANÒ & ZANARDO
 

[Signature]























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January 13, 1964
 

We authorize Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo to proceed with the filing of a patent application in Italy at the offices of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce or the Central Patent Office.

The application is for an invention titled "Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits." This application has already been filed under the number 4543/63, record number 83/26, dated March 8, 1963.

 

We authorize Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo to:
 

  • Represent us in dealings with the Ministry of Industry and Commerce.

  • Present documents, make payments, request certificates, and file any necessary documentation.

  • Manage requests for reimbursement of fees, presentation of complete applications, and modifications or withdrawals of applications.

  • Handle any objections or appeals related to the patent application.
     

For this purpose, we designate the office of Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo as our legal domicile for receiving all communications and documents from the Ministry of Industry and Commerce.
 

Signed by:
 

Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo

[Signature]
 

Transmatic Italiana S.R.L.

[Signature]
 

Massimo Rinaldi

[Signature]























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January 22, 1964
 

Ministry of Industry and Commerce
 

Central Patent Office for Inventions, Models, and Trademarks

Document Deposit Report
 

Year: 1964 Day: 22 Month: January
 

The company Ing. Massimo Rinaldi & Transmatic Italiana S.r.l., with headquarters in Rome, Via Oreste Tommasini, 13, represented by Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo, legally domiciled in Rome, Via in Lucina, 17, has deposited the following documents at this office:
 

  1. Letter of engagement: Related to patent application No. 4543/63, record No. 83/26, dated March 8, 1963, for the "Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits."
     

  2. Proof of payment: Certificate of payment of Lire 1,000, dated January 16, 1964.
     

  3. Transmission letter.
     

Depositor: [Signature of Quagliatti]
 

Official Registrar: [Signature]























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April 2, 1965

This document serves as an official record of the payments made to maintain the patent, as well as noting the transfers of the patent and the change in the company's name. The entries detail the amounts paid annually and the administrative changes related to the patent.























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Receipt (Top Left):
 

  • Payment Slip: Poste Italiane (Italian Postal Service)

  • Amount: 1,000 lire

  • Date: January 22, 1963

  • Recipient: Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo, Rome - Via in Lucina, 17

  • For: Ufficio Conti Correnti (Current Accounts Office), Rome

  • Purpose: Patents - Cinematographic Films, etc.

  • Official Stamp: Ufficio Conti Correnti di Roma























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TRANSLATION

Receipts and Payments Section (Top-left corner)

Servizio dei Conti Correnti Postali Service for Postal Current Accounts

Ricevuta di versamento Payment Receipt

  • Lire: 1,000

  • Date: 17/7/69

  • Effettuato da: Ing. Barzano & Zanardo

  • A favore di: Società Italiana Brevetti

  • Ufficio I.G.E. Roma

Società Italiana Brevetti
ROMA


Via Poli, 42

Annotations Section (Bottom-left corner)

  • Cessione quota parte n. 25/64 del 18.1.64, trascrizione n. 11635 a favore Transimatic Italiana S.r.l. a Roma Transfer of a quota part no. 25/64 dated 18.1.64, transcription no. 11635 in favor of Transimatic Italiana S.r.l. in Rome

  • Cessione n. 371/64 del 5.5.64, trascrizione n. 11828 a favore Transimatic S.p.A. a Pomezia Transfer no. 371/64 dated 5.5.64, transcription no. 11828 in favor of Transimatic S.p.A. in Pomezia

Fee Section (Bottom-right corner)

  • Tasse: Fees:

  • Anno: 1969

  • Date: 1/1968

  • Importo: Lire 8,000

Roma, 10/7/1969

Firma:
Signature:


Signed

Stamps:

  • "UFFICIO CERTIFICAZIONI" Certification Office (with details)

  • Date: 4 1969























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PARTIAL TRANSLATION

FRENCH REPUBLIC

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY SERVICE
 

INVENTION PATENT
 

P.V. No. 992.969 No. 1.418.343
 

International Classification: G 06 b
 

Circuit for introducing numerical data and performing arithmetic operations, particularly usable in combination with data reading devices from magnetic memories and display on decimal numerical indicators. (Invention: Massimo RINALDI.)
 

Company: INDUSTRIA MACCHINE ELETTRONICHE I.M.E. S.p.A., residing in Italy.
 

Filed on October 28, 1964, at 2:54 p.m., in Paris.
 

Issued by order dated October 11, 1965.
 

(Official Bulletin of Industrial Property, No. 47 of 1965.)
 

(3 patent applications filed in Italy on January 11, 1964, under No. 450/64, March 5, 1964, under No. 4.679/64, and March 27, 1964, under No. 6.402/64, in the name of the company TRANSIMATIC ITALIANA S.P.A.)
 

The present invention concerns a circuit for introducing and processing numerical data in devices for reading with display on decimal numerical indicators, associated with magnetic memories of the coincidence or destructive type.
 

According to the present invention, the introduction and processing circuits of the data described below are perfectly suitable for use in electronic calculators of general and small dimensions. Small calculators, known in previous technology, are primarily of the mechanical type and exhibit all the inconveniences related to mechanical devices, namely noise, low speed, etc. Hybrid calculators are also known, which are partially mechanical and partially electronic, but these calculators do not eliminate these inconveniences.
 

The present invention provides an electronic calculator of small dimensions that can be built as a desktop calculator, maintaining the compactness of mechanical calculators, offering a similar range of functionalities, speed, and a quieter operation than purely electronic devices.

In particular, the present invention relates to a circuit that can be used to introduce numerical data and provide the shift of said data introduced into a set of cells or locations constituting parts of a display system including several numerical indicators.
 

A device of this kind is particularly suitable for combined use with a reading device, with display on numerical indicators, of data stored in magnetic memories of the coincidence type, as described in the patent application filed in France on February 3, 1964, under the title "Device for the numerical display of data stored in electronic circuits."
 

The present invention also concerns a mode of realizing the entry circuit of such a device for treating numerical data suitable for performing elementary arithmetic operations on numerical data introduced into one or more magnetic memories.
 

In the demand for the above patent, a combination of a coincidence-type magnetic memory, a destructive readout memory, was described, comprising writing circuits connected functionally to auxiliary memory devices for non-destructive reading that allow the binary-decimal decoding of numerical figures in the sequential system, and decimal numerical indicators of a gas or other type, of the content of the coincidence-type read memory, of a column of a figure at a time, and the subsequent rewriting of the content of auxiliary memories in the coincidence-type magnetic memory.
 

In the modes of realization of the present invention, the use of several input circuits is envisaged, connected in series to the binary-decimal decoding systems, suitable for operating on several memory devices simultaneously, and providing for the writing and subsequent reading of these devices in the sequential system of the binary-decimal code...























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LA, LB, LC and LD (TC9, 10, 11 and 12) are the four color memory buttons on the left side of the keyboard .























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Sixteen digits is the giveaway that this is the patent for the IME 84 prototype, not the production model elma 3000 (12 digits). Four elma 3000 units were used as a demo for potential lenders, a process that took over a year. 























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Fig. 19























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Lookup tables.























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Fig. 21























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February 28, 1965
Gazette Telegraph
(Colarado Springs)























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Official sales photograph of the IME 86S























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An IME 86 promotional photograph.























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This NASA document describes the IME 86S being used in the Apollo 11 mission design of C.O. Alley's lunar retro-reflector ("major space experiment"). It is still being used to measure the distance from the moon to the Earth down to less than two centimeters. That's not a bad margin of error given that the moon's distance averages 238,855 miles from the Earth.

Excerpt: "A recently acquired IME 86S electronic desk calculator with its associated magnetic core memory programming unit proved to be highly useful for these computations which on an ordinary desk calculator would have been very tedious and time-consuming."























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Page i.























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Page ii























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Page 1; Highlights are MoTET's emphasis.























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Excerpt: "A recently acquired IME 86S electronic desk calculator with its associated magnetic core memory programming unit proved to be highly useful for these computations which on an ordinary desk calculator would have been very tedious and time-consuming."























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The quadratic equation being solved by the IME 86S























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Promotion booklet for the IME 86 computer system; Page 1.























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Promotion booklet for the for the IME 86 computer system. Page 2























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Sales of ten (10) IME 86S programming systems purchased on May 2, 1967























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Moscow September 5 to 18, 1968























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September 20, 1967 Running-in bench for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators. 























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October 29, 1968 Full cargo air shipment of electronic IME calculators.























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20-9-67 Inserting the printed circuit board when assembling an IME 86S electronic desktop

September 20, 1967 Control of printed circuits for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators























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20-9-67 Assembly of components on printed circuits for IME 86S electronic desktop calculat

September 20, 1967 Assembly of components on printed circuits for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators























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20-9-67 Pomezia. Assembly of components on printed circuit boards for IME 86S electronic d

September 20, 1967 Pomezia. Assembly of components on printed circuit boards for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators.























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September 20, 1967 Assembly line for power supplies for IME 86S desktop electronic calculators























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9-20-67 Visual inspection of components mounted on printed circuit boards for IME 86S elec

September 20, 1967 Visual inspection of components mounted on printed circuit boards for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators























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9-20-67 Assembly of components on printed circuit boards for IME 86S electronic desktop ca

September 20, 1967 Assembly of components on printed circuit boards for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators 























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September 20, 1967 Control of printed circuits for IME 86S electronic desktop calculators.























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1967 IME desktop system composed of the 86S electronic calculator and the Digicorder DG 30

1967 IME desktop system composed of the 86S electronic calculator and the Digicorder DG 308 programmer with magnetic memory with ferrite cores























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tecnica pratica magazine; May 1963; Milano

TRANSLATION:
The box contains all the products necessary for the creation of printed circuits, including a series of BSE sheets for various circuits. By following the clear instructions included you can quickly build any type of printed circuit to your design. Standard package L. 3600 (postage paid) Shipping by cash on delivery or with payment to current account 1/39933. Address requests to: Transimatic Italiana V.le di Villa Massimo 21 Rome.























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Journal de Monaco; February 4, 1966

No. 520.65.501.

(Delivered by Ministerial Decree of July 6, 1965)
 

Application submitted on November 4, 1964, by the company INDUSTRIA MACCHINE ELETTRONICHE - I.M.E., headquartered in Pomezia (Province of Rome, Italy) - Via del Mare.
 

For: "Circuit to introduce numerical data and to perform arithmetic operations, particularly usable in combination with devices for reading data from magnetic memories and displaying on decimal numerical indicators."
 

Properties transferred from Italy on January 11, March 5, and March 27, 1964, in the name of the company TRANSMATIC ITALIANA (the former name of the applicant).
 

The notice also mentions that the property of this patent were transferred from Italy on specific dates in 1964 under the name Transmatic Italiana, which was the former name of the applicant company. This indicates that Transmatic Italiana had originally developed or held the rights to this technology before becoming Industria Macchine Elettroniche (I.M.E.).























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Document Excerpt with Massimo's signature.























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Document Excerpt with Massimo's signatures.























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Document excerpt.























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Document Excerpt with Massimo's signatures.























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Financial Times; April 13, 1982.

Massimo Rinaldi: ruled out bank borrowing because "the high interest rates would have finished us off in the twinkling of an eye." 

"Like many successful Italians whose names have got into the papers - often via the pernicious medium of lists of people who have or have not paid their taxes, he has a revolver permanently at his waste band as a guard against kidnapping. 'And I know how to use it,' he says."























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Interview excerpt showing the ELMA 3000 (left) and the IME 86 production prototype (right)
 

TRANSLATION

WHO IS MASSIMO RINALDI?
 

Massimo Rinaldi was born 63 years ago in Rome to a family of the good Roman bourgeoisie: his engineer father runs a construction company inherited from his grandfather. A Capricorn with Pisces ascendant, he immediately reveals personal characteristics typical of this astrological combination: great ambitions and practical skills in transforming materials.
 

After the war, he opted for Electrical Engineering (at that time, Electronic Engineering did not exist), completing his degree course with very brilliant results in 1953. He was offered a position to stay at the university, in the aerospace sector with Prof. Broglio, but his calling for entrepreneurship and proceeding on his own with his inventiveness was too strong. So, after his marriage in 1955, he gave up the university (and also a good job as a manager in a large company) to become an entrepreneur in 1957, in the electro-mechanical sector, at the age of 28.
 

In 1963, he opened a plant in Monza with Edison, then still focused on electromechanical machines, from which he moved on to calculators and computers. In that period, he designed and produced the first electronic desktop calculator in the world (photo 1), the IME 84, beating both American and Japanese competitors at the time. It had an absolute first in terms of memory: 8 bits, 16 keys, 5 operations, 4 memories. The vacuum tube display was visible in color, equal to a mechanical machine in writing. The cost was 1,500,000 lire (double that of a Fiat 500). However, the venture was short-lived, as he couldn't manage to withstand the strong disparities in economic means compared to the large industrial complexes, even with the support of Edison.
 

In 1969, he began his MAEL company, establishing itself in Carsoli in the Mezzogiorno area to make the first Italian personal computers. With MAEL, in the late '70s, he designed various projects, including the MAEL 4000, a PC for the postal sector, with equipment for all the offices of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. The most significant hit, in terms of impact, he achieved in 1983 with the machine for automating the Totocalcio game (which is still in use today), automating the issuance of lottery tickets. The success brought a production of 35,000 machines in Italy, Greece, and Yugoslavia, with 14 million cards processed.
 

Meanwhile, in 1982, Carlo De Benedetti became interested in MAEL, purchasing the majority stake and subsequently including Rinaldi in the Tecnol/Olivetti group, co-opting Rinaldi as an advisor. In recent years, he has diversified his business activities by contributing to projects that can provide new stimuli, creating the Quattrottole company with two divisions: one dedicated to electronics (design and system consultancy), the other to publishing aimed at international congresses. For this reason, he has restored the baronial castle of Collalto Sabino (with the families Savelli, Soderini, Barberini, etc.), transforming it into a residence of 80 rooms, 5 Renaissance suites, a tennis court/football field, and pictures by the Barberini/Colonna painters.

Lastly, thanks to a consortium of BNL, Alenia, Finsiel, Technos, the "lottery machine" was presented, for which he participated in the project.
 

Photo Caption: The IME 84: the first electronic desktop calculator in the world.























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August 1974
 

TRANSLATION:

Massimo Rinaldi is the Managing Director and General Manager of INSEL Industria Sistemi Elettronici S.p.A.
 

Born in Rome in 1929, he graduated in Electrical Engineering from the University of Rome.
 

He began his career at Hasler AG and subsequently at Selenia, dealing with telecommunications and pulse technology.
 

In 1959, he founded Transmatic Italiana, specializing in psychometric analysis devices.


In 1962, he patented the first fully transistorized electronic desktop calculator in the world, which was subsequently manufactured by IME S.p.A., where he served as General Manager of the Research Division until 1969.
 

At the end of 1969, he founded the study company MAEL and developed the MAEL 4000 line of calculators.
 

Subsequently, in 1970, he founded INSEL Industria Sistemi Elettronici S.p.A., a manufacturer of such calculators.























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La Gazzetta dello Sport; 29 luglio 1983; Page 9

TRANSLATION

ROME - Superb on June 12, with the tested public in Orvieto, in coincidence with the last day of the championship of Serie B, the operation of Totocalcio, as it was tested in the course of 1967, ended. Four regions took part: Abruzzo, Lazio, Umbria, Sardinia, and Tuscany, which performed throughout the national territory from 1968.
 

Man who strongly believed in achieving this goal is engineer Massimo Rinaldi, born in Rome 54 years ago, married to Mrs. Eliana and the father of four children: Paolo, Claudia, Stefano, and Fabio. Great-grandson of the same name, Massimo Rinaldi, who managed the family business along with his father Guido (sp).
 

THE FIRST IN THE WORLD - Massimo Rinaldi had the brilliant idea to create the first fully transistorized desktop electronic calculator in the world, thus ahead of the American and Japanese competitors. And with it, he did not simply invent it, he made it better. The engineer developed a perfect product, which Edison promptly supported. "Too bad," says Rinaldi, "it was the only Italian industry that did not believe in the value of the initiative."
 

The machines for producing electronic calculators were created in a factory in Pomezia, near Rome, thanks to loans from the Cassa del Mezzogiorno, but it soon became necessary to identify an industrial partner that could consolidate the position of the new company in a sector dominated by large Italian companies like Olivetti and by multinationals like IBM. In 1963, Rinaldi sold control of the company to Edison, while remaining director of research and development.
 

Discover how the new system works

How do you play with the new automated form? Simple: take the classic form and fill in the three matches on the left with your predictions for the result. If you find the form already filled in, you can follow the instructions printed on the form itself. The rest is done by the automatic central system.

The machine - "My machine," says engineer Rinaldi, "must automate Totocalcio. It must become the game of everyone."

IF IT BREAKS DOWN - Engineer, you know the particular worry: what happens if a machine breaks down?

"The issue of maintenance has been studied from the ground up. The bulk of the game is on Saturday, and it cannot be postponed. To address this need, we studied a solution that mirrors the well-tested organization of Totocalcio, which involves the complete replacement of the machine, even if the defect is minor and repairable. In the case of any breakdown, the machine goes to the workshop, and this means that the replacement does not require specialized personnel and the operation is simple and quick."

Massimo Rinaldi, trying his luck: we see him here filling out "his" automated form. Will he find the "13" millionaire? The Roman engineer is 54 years old, married, and has 4 children. He is passionate about underwater photography.























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TRANSLATION:

INTERVIEW WITH THE EDITOR
 

MASSIMO RINALDI: INFORMATICS FOR 57 MILLION ITALIANS
 

Have you ever played Totocalcio? Or made a payment into a postal current account? Or purchased a train ticket? We think so. Well, without knowing it, you have had to do with the fruits of MAEL's projects. And MAEL means Massimo Rinaldi, founder and board member of the company.
 

There is a kind of information technology that is not flashy, that does not make big news, or big headlines, or grandiose announcements, but which has an extremely significant effect on everyday life. I am talking about that part of information technology that improves the services that the State provides daily to citizens, common services, but no less important for that: registry offices, the postal system, transportation. All these services, with their multiple functions, can be improved with automated systems that assist or replace human labor. Think, for example, of postal current accounts or ticketing systems for transportation, or even the machines used for medical examinations. Massimo Rinaldi is a man who has been able to turn these services into entrepreneurial opportunities, often anticipating other countries with better electronics traditions, interpreting in a perfect way that typical Italian spirit of innovation and creativity, which we owe much to after the war. And here he is, even though he does not usually give interviews or seek public attention, it seems appropriate to give an emblematic Italian example, with which to close our meeting.
 

THE MEETING

The study where I am welcomed is decorated with sober style, with an abundance of light-colored wood, comfortable and essential lines, and dark leather upholstery on the walls. On one side, a desk full of papers, on the other side, a large wall projection showing the map of the world. In the middle, a large table in polished wood on which there are several phones and a big briefcase. The man who welcomes me is dressed quite soberly, courteous, with two lively eyes, flashing, and a way of speaking very fast, almost hiding his Roman accent, making him appear like he came from a northern region. It seems that he has never stopped working and thinking for a single moment in his life. He is a man with great success, who has managed his entrepreneurial and managerial career in a very brilliant way.
 

"Engineer, how did your career begin?"
 

"Well, now we are getting lost in the mists of time. I think I belong to that category of engineers who couldn't study electronics because there was no such subject yet. I graduated in 1953, precisely the year the first transistor was presented by my old professor under a showcase in a display case. Those were truly different times, there was everything to do, everything to invent, everything to build. I come from a good Roman bourgeois family, my father was an engineer who in turn had inherited a small business. But my destiny was different. I couldn't be satisfied with the typical choices of those years: either getting a secure job with zero worries or starting to work for a large company that would keep me on salary and provide for my living. Instead, I felt the need to create, to invent, and to realize what my creativity suggested. There were no electronics studies in universities yet, so I had to improvise, study on my own, and in my own way try to make my dreams come true. So, I graduated and immediately began to deal with telecommunications and pulse technology. After a few years, I founded Transmatic Italiana, which dealt with electromedical devices, and in 1962, I patented the first fully transistorized desktop electronic calculator in the world. It was produced by IME S.p.A., where I was the General Manager of the Study Section until 1969. Then, at the end of 1969, I founded the study company MAEL and developed the MAEL 4000 line of calculators. In 1970, I founded INSEL Industria Sistemi Elettronici S.p.A., which produces these calculators."
 

"Regarding your relationship with Olivetti?"
 

"I must say that when Olivetti entered MAEL, I only saw a "marriage of convenience." I think that the company saw in me the opportunity to start. With Olivetti, I had a human relationship, that is, I saw the development of my ideas and projects, and they provided the solid structure that only a large group can provide. In short, we completed each other. Today, they have inserted the CAD (computer-aided design) system, which, I must admit, has enriched but never limited my ability to adapt."
 

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Our Editor with Engineer Massimo Rinaldi.























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TRANSLATION:

Continues from page 17 (interview with Massimo Rinaldi)

What are the current prospects for the sector economy and for high tech in general?

"A characteristic that stands out to everyone is the 'turbulent' pace of price reduction. But this is the result of two phenomena: on one hand, the not very high capital needed to enter the electronics sector, which leads to market saturation, and on the other hand, the rate of technological updating, which makes products obsolete in less than six months.

I see considerable opportunities in niche applications where the sale price can be defended with the necessary competence and specific know-how for their realization. In short, I have moved precisely to those niches where others have not. However, I am convinced that there is space for industry and true entrepreneurship even in Italy, although it is one thing to work in the north and quite another in the south. The real problem, however, is the lack of true business ideas, as it is increasingly difficult to know what to do, rather than how to do it. And in the specific case of design and engineering, very few companies have seriously planned and designed for the future, given the convenience of importing products, disassembling them, and then enriching themselves locally."

What do you think of the Italian system? Does it work?

"Italy is one of the countries where less is invested in research and development, and where it is more difficult to integrate universities and the industrial world. Europe could be an answer, although not immediately."

Are there possibilities for a young person who wants to start being an entrepreneur today?

"I think so, but with greater difficulty than when I started. Today, the barrier to market entry is not economic but rather related to knowledge of application issues. I also think that an interdisciplinary approach can help discover some yet unexplored niches: for example, a lawyer who understands electronics or a psychologist-dentist who knows programming. Finally, I think the law for young entrepreneurs should be extended to all of Italy."

What do you think of mass information technology?

Massimo raises his eyebrows slightly, then tells me calmly: "Mass information technology risks taking away fantasy and creativity, especially where it is used exclusively passively. Books instead remain a possibility for genuine growth. The advantage of computers is in the function they perform, in the very nature of being human: after all, despite progress, it remains much more difficult to play the keys of a piano than those of a computer."

Caption:

The castle of Collalto Sabino, once belonging to the Barberini family and now transformed by Rinaldi into a Conference Center.























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The medieval castle of Collalto Sabino, once belonging to the Barberini family, and purchased and restored by Massimo Rinaldi.

Visit the Wikipedia site for this castle. Massimo Rinaldi is mentioned in it:

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collalto_Sabino

Upon the death of the prior owner, Piero Giorgi Monfort in 1988, the castle was purchased by the "Quattrostelle" company, whose largest shareholder was Massimo Rinaldi, son of Alessandra Latini belonging to the ancient and wealthy Collaltese family.























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A plaque commemorates Massimo Rinaldi in Collalto Sabino. A Roman engineer, descendant on his mother's side (Alessandra Latini) from an ancient family in the town, purchased the castle in 1988 and restored it in the 1990s.























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Date taken 1967 by Studio Prisma























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1967 Digicorder DG 308, a magnetic memory programmer with ferrite cores from IME























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1967 - IME Mobile trolley system consisting of IME 86S -  IME KB6 and IME DG 308 RM























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1967 -  IME DG 308 RM with cards with perforated edge produced by IME SpA























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Digicorder DG 308 RM (rack mount) - taken by Studio Prisma























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1967 IME modular system microcomputer called IME Mobile trolley system consisting of IME 8

1967 IME modular system microcomputer called the IME Mobile Trolley System consisting of IME 86S- IME KB6 and IME DG 308 RM























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1968  multistorage IME MS-30, memory unit with ferrite cores with remote control keyboard.

1968  multistorage IME MS-30, memory unit with ferrite cores with remote control keyboard.























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MARCH 8, 1963 PATENT 

PART 1 or 9 (nine parts shown below)

Massimo's first claim, of four claims, in this early invention leverages a strobe effect, or persistence of vision, to create the illusion that all numeric digits are lit simultaneously, even though they are actually illuminated sequentially. This method simplifies the design and reduces the complexity and cost of the hardware needed to display multiple digits at once. 

TRANSLATION

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE

CENTRAL PATENT OFFICE FOR INVENTIONS, MODELS, AND TRADEMARKS

INDUSTRIAL INVENTION

Application Number: 688969

Application Date: March 8, 1963 (Filing Date / Priority Date)

Year: 1963

Section: G

Class: 06F

Owner:

  • Name: Massimo Rinaldi

  • Company: Transimatic Italiana S.R.L., now Industria Macchine Elettroniche I.M.E. S.p.A.

  • Address: Via Oreste Tomassini 13, Rome

Title:

  • Title of the Invention: Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits

Representative:

  • Representative: Ing. Barzanò & Zanardo, Via in Lucina, 17, Rome

Special Annotations: (Blank)

Date of Grant:

  • April 2, 1965

Signature:

  • Director: F.to Rosa

Additional Stamps:

  • Stamp: MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE, INVENTIONS, MODELS, AND TRADEMARKS

  • Stamp: CAMERA DI COMMERCIO (Chamber of Commerce)

  • Stamp: UFFICIO CENTRALE BREVETTI (Central Patent Office)

Other Details:

  • Registration Numbers: 4543/63

  • Commercial Register Number: 158

  • Verbal Record Number: 83/26

Observation:

  • The application mentions a change in the company name from Transimatic Italiana S.R.L. to Industria Macchine Elettroniche I.M.E. S.p.A., as documented on March 9, 1964.























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TRANSLATION

Part 3 of 9

Description of the invention titled: "Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits" by Engineer Massimo Rinaldi and Transimatic Italiana S.r.l., both based in Rome.

 

Many electronic devices require the ability to read data in clear decimal figures as stored in electronic circuits in code. Such devices include, for example, electronic counters applied in various fields, electronic memories, electronic computers, etc.
 

Such stored data can be read through incandescent lamps, gas lamps, single digits per number, or projected numerical elements or numerical indicators, such as gas, luminescent, or other electronic displays.
 

For all such devices, an intermediate decoding and amplification device is required to drive the relevant element for each digit.
 

The described system allows for the decoding and driving of numerical elements relating to many digits with a single unit.
 

Description
 

The device consists of three essential parts:

A - Decimal Decoder























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TRANSLATION 

Part 4 of 9

B - Digit Driver
C - Memory Elements
D - Numerical Indicators

The decimal decoder A is unique, and its input characteristics are:
4 wires for "binary-coded decimal" e.g., 1-2-4-8

The output characteristics are:


10 wires, of which 9 are at zero voltage, and one corresponds to the digit expressed in the code of the signal in input at voltage V1​. This voltage must be sufficient to light up the number of the indicator.

The circuits of the decoder include: 4 groups formed by a pair of cascaded inverters for each binary bit to have available for each bit the signal of yes and no, i.e., 1 or 0; a matrix M of eight columns and ten rows for the decoding; optionally, each row can be associated with an amplifier element EF.

The circuit may not necessarily have the pairs of inverters if the coded signal presented at the input is on 8 wires.

The output of each row corresponding to a decimal number will be connected to all the identical numbers of the N indicators D.























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TRANSLATION

Part 5 of 9

In this way, the presence of a coded signal applied at the input of the decoder corresponds to having a certain voltage V1​ on all N identical numbers corresponding to the applied signal.

Each digit, consisting of ten numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, will have a common, and by applying to this a voltage V2​, the lighting of the number to which a voltage V1​ has already been applied will occur, while the other numbers will not light up.

The lighting will occur, therefore, by a voltage V1​+V2​ and not by V1​ and V2​ applied individually.

Each of these commons, consisting, for example, of the anodes of N gas numerical indicator tubes, is powered by an amplifier circuit whose input is connected to one of the outputs in the scan circuit B.

Such a scanning circuit can also be of the electronic type, optionally with binary elements connected to a counter followed by a decoding matrix.

In this case, the M2 matrix will have as many columns as there are numerical indicators and two rows for each necessary binary element. Example: 2x2 rows for N = 4, 2x4 rows for N = 16, etc.

The M2 matrix will be such that only one column at a time is freed, depending on the state of the bistable elements























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TRANSLATION

Part 6 pf 9

...at a time depending on the state of the bistable elements.

The scanning device, ultimately, will provide the voltage to the common of a single numeric indicator according to a certain cadence.
 

In this way, all numeric indicators will be activated one after the other, presenting the number corresponding to the coded signal applied to the input of decoder A.
 

The scanning frequency must be such that it allows a number of scans per second sufficient to make the sequence of operations imperceptible, thereby giving an apparently simultaneous presentation on all digits. This is achieved with a frequency >16 N o/s by exploiting the persistence of images or the inertia of the illuminating element.
 

Each number pilot circuit is associated with a G circuit capable of providing a Ck signal every time the corresponding pilot circuit is activated.

This signal, called the digit consensus, is sent to the electronic unit to unlock the 4 coincidence outputs.
 

Each decimal unit, in fact, has four outputs, one for each flip-flop, each of which is sent to an "and" or coincidence circuit. To each of...























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TRANSLATION

Part 7 of 9

These circuits receive two other signals: a "digit consent" signal Ck​ and a "group consent" signal Gc​.
 

In this way, on the four lines that connect in parallel, all the outputs of the decade units will be present only for the coded signal relative to the decade that receives both the "digit consent" and the "group consent".
 

Each numerical indicator, therefore, being activated together with a decade of a group, will report the decimal number related to that specific decade of that group.
 

It is possible to read through the numerical indicators multiple memory groups simply by sending the consent to the relative "group consent" line.

Observe the simplification of the connections of the outputs consisting almost exclusively of parallels.
 

The described device does not imply any limitation of use or function of the electronic elements that, while being explored for reading, can retain or otherwise vary their content.
 

Claims
 

  1. Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits, characterized by the fact that the presentation of the various























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TRANSLATION

Part 8 of 9

the digits is done over time, one at a time, at a rate that makes them appear simultaneously thanks to the inertia of the element or the persistence of the image.
 

2. Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits, characterized by the fact that the intermediate decoding device between the electronic elements and the numerical indicators is unique and used in successive times.
 

3. Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits, characterized by the fact that at the moment of activation of a numerical digit indicator, an unlocking signal is sent to the outputs of the corresponding electronic element, so that each digit contained in the electronic elements will always appear in its ordinal place even in successive instances.
 

4. Device for the numerical presentation of data stored in electronic circuits, characterized by the fact that on the same group of numerical indicators it is possible to read the content of one or more groups of electronic elements simply by sending an unlocking consent to all the outputs of the electronic elements of the desired group.























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TRANSLATION

Part 9 of 9

Counter-signed on six pages to be attached to the description.

Massimo Rinaldi

[Stamped text and signature]

TRANSMATIC ITALIANA The Sole Administrator

[Official stamp]

MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE CENTRAL OFFICE OF INVENTIONS, MODELS, AND TRADEMARKS

The Official in Charge























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1969























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1969























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1970























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December 1970























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February 1, 1963

WYLE Laboratories

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